Logical Fallacy

A logical fallacy is an error in logical argumentation (e.g. ad hominem attacks, slippery slopes, circular arguments, appeal to force, etc.). A cognitive bias, on the other hand, is a genuine deficiency or limitation in our thinking — a flaw in judgment that arises from errors of memory, social attribution, and miscalculations (such as statistical […]

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Extrovert Ideal

The “Extrovert Ideal” Susan Cain says Western, and in particular, American, culture is dominated by what she calls the “Extrovert Ideal,” described as “the omnipresent belief that the ideal self is gregarious, alpha and comfortable in the spotlight.” Western societies, being based on the Greco-Roman ideal which praises oratory, favor the man of action over the man of […]

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Symbolic Mirroring

Notice how we have gone beyond physical mirroring to include things of symbolic value. This is symbolic mirroring, and the symbolic behavior is often subconscious behavior. And we have seen that you can combine symbolic and physical mirroring. This combination of symbolic and physical mirroring is very powerful. For practice in looking for subconscious symbols, […]

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Behavioral Mirroring

Unlike regular mirroring, in behavioral mirroring, you match behaviors that have symbolic meaning. They are mostly subconscious. In fact, the more subconscious they are, the better they are to mirror. After all, no one can think you’re imitating him or her if you are imitating something they don’t know they’re doing, can they?   But […]

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Meta-programs

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) uses the term ‘meta-programs’ specifically to indicate general, pervasive and usually habitual patterns used by an individual across a wide range of situations. Examples of NLP meta-programs include the preference for overview or detail, the preference for where to place one’s attention during conversation, habitual linguistic patterns and body language, and so […]

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Preferred representational system

Originally NLP taught that most people had an internal preferred representational system (PRS) and preferred to process information primarily in one sensory modality. The practitioner could ascertain this from external cues such as the direction of eye movements, posture, breathing, voice tone and the use of sensory-based predicates. If a person repeatedly used predicates such […]

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Binds

Binds …. A bind can be explicitly or implicitly, stated. Implicit binds maybe recognized as incongruent communication. As in the case of a partner stating verbally “I don’t mind you going out”, whilst their non-verbals state “I don’t want you to go”. This type of bind, incongruent communication, is sited as a possible cause for […]

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Inverse Meta Model

The Inverse Meta Model language patterns are used to describe experience in vague terms. The Inverse Meta Model language patterns can be broken into three distinct classes: Deleting Information, Semantic Ill-Formedness Limits of the Speaker’s Model Deleting Information Where information is deleted, the listener must fill in the deleted information from their own unique experience. […]

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Creative visualization

Creative visualization  is the technique of using one’s imagination to visualize specific behaviors or events occurring in one’s life. Advocates suggest creating a detailed schema of what one desires and then visualizing it over and over again with all of the senses (i.e., what do you see? what do you feel? what do you hear? […]

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Visualization

Visualization is a very common technique used in hypnotherapy and NLP. It involves creating mental images or pictures in a persons mind. Visualization is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the actual experience of perceiving some object, event, or scene in the physical world, yet is not actually present to the senses. Visualization […]

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Convergent thinking

Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford as the opposite of divergent thinking. It generally means the ability to give the “correct” answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence. Convergent thinking is the type of […]

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Divergent thinking

What is divergent thinking? The psychologist J.P. Guilford first used the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking in 1967. Divergent thinking is also sometimes called ‘lateral thinking’. Divergent thinking is the process of generating multiple related ideas for a given topic or solutions to a problem. Divergent thinking occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, ‘non-linear’ manner. […]

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Mere-exposure effect

The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more […]

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Moral credential

The moral credential effect is a bias that occurs when a person’s track record as a good egalitarian establishes in them an unconscious ethical certification, endorsement, or license that increases the likelihood of less egalitarian decisions later. This effect occurs even when the audience or moral peer group is unaware of the affected person’s previously established moral […]

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Memes

Memes are the smallest units of cultural meaning. A meme is a unit that carries cultural ideas, behaviors, or styles from one person to another in a culture. Memes carry cultural ideas, symbols, and practices that are transmitted from one mind to another through writing, language, gestures, rituals, or other means that can be imitated. Memes are thought to […]

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Groupthink

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints, by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by […]

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Cognitive map

A cognitive map ( mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. The concept was introduced by Edward Tolman in 1948. Cognitive maps have been […]

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Appeal to fear

An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a competitor. The appeal to fear is common in marketing and politics.

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Emotions and memory

Emotion can have a powerful impact on memory. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events. The activity of emotionally enhanced memory retention can be linked to human evolution; during […]

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Wishful thinking

Wishful thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence, rationality, or reality. It is a product of resolving conflicts between belief and desire. Studies have consistently shown that holding all else equal, subjects will predict positive outcomes to be more likely […]

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Stereotype

A stereotype is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality. However, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype. Within psychology and spanning across other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping that […]

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Labeling theory

Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the tendency […]

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Inattentional blindness

Inattentional blindness, also known as perceptual blindness, is categorized as a psychological lack of attention and is not associated with any vision defects or deficits. Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice an unexpected stimulus that is in one’s field of vision when other attention-demanding tasks are being performed. It is categorized as an attentional […]

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Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY)

NIMBY (an acronym for the phrase “Not In My Back Yard“), or Nimby, is a pejorative characterization of opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them, often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. Opposing […]

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Other people’s money

A phrase of Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations (1776) Book V, ch 1, §107, referring to how corporate directors will always be inefficient, because they preside over other people’s money.  Attributed to Milton Friedman as a way of expressing the opinion that the government does not carefully spend taxpayers’ money.

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Tragedy of the commons

The tragedy of the commons is an economics theory by Garrett Hardin, according to which individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one’s self-interest, behave contrary to the whole group’s long-term best interests by depleting some common resource. The concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, […]

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Bystander effect

The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present. The probability of help is inversely related to the number of bystanders. In other words, the greater the number of bystanders, the […]

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Somebody Else’s Problem

Somebody Else’s Problem (also known as Someone Else’s Problem or SEP) is a psychological effect where individuals/populations of individuals choose to dissociate themselves from an issue that may be in critical need of recognition. Such issues may be of large concern to the population as a whole but can easily be a choice of ignorance […]

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Black swan theory

The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. The theory was developed by Nassim Nicholas Taleb to explain: The disproportionate role of high-profile, hard-to-predict, […]

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Prospect theory

Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known. The theory states that people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome, and that people evaluate these losses and gains […]

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Risk aversion

Risk aversion is a concept in economics and finance, based on the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors) while exposed to uncertainty to attempt to reduce that uncertainty. Risk aversion is the reluctance of a person to accept a bargain with an uncertain payoff rather than another bargain with a more certain, but possibly […]

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Suggestibility

Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others. A person experiencing intense emotions tends to be more receptive to ideas and therefore more suggestible. Generally, suggestibility decreases as age increases. However, psychologists have found that individual levels of self-esteem and assertiveness can make some people more suggestible […]

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Illusory truth effect

The truth effect, the illusory truth effect or the illusion-of-truth effect is the tendency to believe information to be correct because we are exposed to it more times.

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Hubris

Hubris, also hybris, from ancient Greek, means extreme pride or self-confidence. Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one’s own competence, accomplishments or capabilities, especially when the person exhibiting it is in a position of power. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is “hubristic”. In modern usage, hubris […]

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Egotism

Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one’s personal features and importance — intellectual, physical, social and other. The egotist has an overwhelming sense of the centrality of the ‘Me’: of their personal qualities. Egotism means placing oneself at the core of one’s world […]

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Thinking outside the box

Thinking outside the box (also thinking out of the box or thinking beyond the box) is a metaphor that means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective. This phrase often refers to novel or creative thinking.  To think outside the box is to look farther and to try not thinking of the obvious things, but […]

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Reason

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, for establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic […]

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False in one thing, false in everything

The Latin phrase falsum in uno, falsum in omnibus which, roughly translated, means “false in one thing, false in everything“, is fallacious in so far as someone found to be wrong about one thing, is presumed to be wrong about some other thing entirely. Arising in Roman courts, this principle meant that if a witness was […]

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Splitting

Splitting (also called all-or-nothing thinking) is the failure in a person’s thinking to bring together both positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive, realistic whole. It is a common defense mechanism used by many people. The individual tends to think in extremes (i.e., an individual’s actions and motivations are all good […]

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Black-and-white thinking

In psychology, a phenomenon related to the false dilemma is black-and-white thinking. Many people routinely engage in black-and-white thinking, an example of which is someone who labels other people as all good or all bad. See also: Splitting (psychology)

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Presuppositions of NLP

The principles which form the foundation of NLP have been modeled from key people who consistently produced consistent and successful results. Have respect for the other person’s model of the world. We are all unique and experience the world in different ways. Everyone is individual and has their own special way of being. The map is […]

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Presuppositions: Ambiguity

When words have double meaning, the unconscious mind must process all meanings. Words like down, left, duck, hand, back all have double meanings. Then there are words spelled differently and pronounced the same. Hear/here, your/you’re, nose/knows are examples. These can be extremely helpful in helping us produce embedded suggestions. “One of the things that’s most […]

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Consciousness

Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive control system of the mind. 

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Mnemonic

A mnemonic, or mnemonic device, is any learning technique that aids information retention. Mnemonics aim to translate information into a form that the brain can retain better than its original form. Even the process of merely learning this conversion might already aid in the transfer of information to long-term memory. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often […]

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Metamemory (Meta-Memory)

Metamemory, a type of metacognition, is both the introspective knowledge of one’s own memory capabilities (and strategies that can aid memory) and the processes involved in memory self-monitoring. This self-awareness of memory has important implications for how people learn and use memories. When studying, for example, students make judgements of whether they have successfully learned the […]

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Cognition

Cognition is the process by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. In science, cognition is the mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. Various disciplines, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics all study cognition. However, the term’s […]

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Metacognition (Meta-Cognition)

  Meta-Cognition is defined as “cognition about cognition”, or “knowing about knowing” — having a skill, and the knowledge about it to explain how you do it. Metacognition comes from the root word “meta”, meaning behind. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There […]

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Anchoring

Anchoring is the process of associating a past state or response with a particular stimulus. The stimulus, or “anchor,” could be anything from a specific touch, sound or smell.  Remembering and re-experiencing a positive or resourceful past state and anchoring it to a unique stimulus can make it available on demand. This idea is similar to […]

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Second Position

Second Position is seeing the world from another person’s point of view to provide a better understanding of their reality.

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Softeners

Softeners lessen the impact of a direct question and possible rejection by softening voice tone or preamble such as “Would you be willing to tell me ….?

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