Presuppositions: Scope

Scope is when the context does not reveal the scope to which a verb or modifier applies. “Speaking to you as a changed person …” (Who is the changed person?) or “The old men and women …”

Read More

Presuppositions: Syntactic

Syntactic refers to a statement with more than one possible meaning. “shooting stars” or “leadership shows” — the syntax is uncertain within the context — is it referring to adjectives, verbs or nouns?

Read More

Presuppositions: Extended Quote

An Extended Quote is a embedded context for the delivery of information that may be in the format of a command. “Many years ago, I met a retired army Sargent who taught me many useful things. He said to me “Change is easy and can be fun”.”

Read More

Presuppositions: Lost Performative

Lost Performative is when someone says something that contains a rule or judgement without anyone taking responsibility for it.  It can include an implication of an idea instead of a direct statement such as “Breathing is good.”   A suggestion is presented to the subconscious stating that some opinion is true, but does not say how […]

Read More

Presuppositions: The More, The More

Once some degree of rapport is established, this presupposition subtly leverages a resistant behavior as a consequence to the desired action. “The more you try to resist going into a trance, the more you find your eyes wanting to shut all by themselves.”

Read More

Presuppositions: Tag Questions

These are Milton Model questions that encourage a client to confirm the truth of the words immediately preceding, aren’t they? If you read that question again, its almost impossible not to say ‘Yes’, isn’t it? It’s always good to get the client into a positive frame of mind, I’m sure you would agree? If the […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Negative Commands

Negative Commands use the inability of your unconscious to comprehend language constructions that use negatives (No, Not, Don’t, etc.). For instance, if someone were to say, “Don’t think about pink elephants,” what happens? Using negative commands can be thought of as sending subliminal messages to the brain. Since the unconscious cannot process the negative, only the […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Embedded Suggestions

Embedded Suggestions (or Embedded Commands) are commands or directives buried within a larger sentence. They can be embedded within ordinary conversation. The embedded suggestions are usually marked with a change in tonality or tempo (analogical marking). Such as by speaking louder or looking directly at the client while using a particular tone of voice. They allow […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Adverbs and Adjectives

Adverbs and Adjectives presuppose that something is going to happen. The question is how will the experience be? “What will you enjoy the most about driving the new Corvette?” “Are you excited about buying something for my birthday?” “How easily can you begin to relax in a recliner chair?” “Fortunately we have plenty of opportunity to […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Awareness

Anytime you imply that you’re aware of something, you’re actually drawing attention to that awareness. So using words such as know, aware, realized and noticed, you’re already assuming that certain things are true. Let’s use the following statements as examples: “I know that the cafe is not open today.” “Are you aware that the cafe is not open […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Ordinals

Ordinals assume action will be taken — the question is — in what order, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. “Do you want to wash the dishes or would you like to take out the trash first?”

Read More

Conversational Postulates

Conversational Postulates are requests for action or information masquerading as yes or no questions.  It is a question which, on the face of it, requires a Yes or No answer, but which is really demanding a specific behavior. ‘Could you pass me the cream?’ is a request for action, not an inquiry about ability. ‘Do you […]

Read More

Transformational Grammar

In linguistics, a transformational grammar or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is a generative grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in the syntactic structures of phrase structure grammars (as opposed to dependency grammars). Transformational grammar is the tradition of specific transformational grammars. Much current research in transformational grammar is inspired by Chomsky’s Minimalist […]

Read More

Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are broadly three aspects to the study, which include language form, language meaning, and language in context.  Language can be understood as an interplay of sound and meaning. The discipline that studies linguistic sound is termed as phonetics, which is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and non-speech […]

Read More

Cause & Effect

Cause & Effect implies that one thing leads to or causes another; that there is sequence of cause and effect and a flow in time. It includes phrases such as: “If …, then …; As you …., then you …; Because … then …” “If you can hear my voice, then you can learn many […]

Read More

Utilization

Utilization is a technique or approach where a person’s specific pattern of behavior is paced or matched in order to influence the person’s response. Utilization takes advantage of everything in the listeners experience (both internal and external environments) to support the intention of the speaker. Employee says: “I don’t understand.” Response: “That’s right…you don’t understand, yet, because […]

Read More

Complex Equivalence

Complex Equivalence is where a Milton Model suggestion is given that one thing is the same as or equivalent to some other thing. It isn’t that one thing causes another, but the implication that because one thing is true the other thing must be true.  Occurs when two ideas are connected together that do not […]

Read More

Unspecified Nouns

Unspecified nouns are nouns where you don’t know who or what they are specifically talking about. When statements using unspecified nouns and verbs are used, the listener is forced to use their imagination to fill in the missing pieces.  NLP refers to this as a lack of referential index.  

Read More

Mind Reading

Mind Reading occurs when someone assumes they know what another person is thinking or feeling without direct evidence.  Mind Reading can be recognized when someone claims to know something without obvious evidence, claims to know how another person feels, or claims to understand another person’s internal state without explanation. It is the assumptions that are made about […]

Read More

Nominalization Chaining

Nominalization Chaining is when several nominalizations are used or chained together as though what is being said is a real and understood concept.

Read More

Nominalizations

Nominalizations occur when a verb or adjective is used as a noun although not a real and tangible object. This can include such words as accuracy, superiority, excellence, and destiny. “People can come to new understandings.” In this example ‘understandings’ is used as a noun and to describe the on-going experience of ‘understanding’ or ‘making […]

Read More

Distortions

Distortions is the manipulation of the meaning of real events resulting in a false conclusion that is based on a persons actual sensory information. Coincidences in events can lead some people to create distortions of reality. In language, a distortion can be expressed in such examples as “A black car followed me all the way […]

Read More

Presuppositions: Comparative Deletions

Comparative Deletions  (Unspecified Comparison) occur when a statement does not clarify what something is being compared to, such as “the hybrid car gets forty percent better gas mileage” or “shopping at Walmart is a lot cheaper”.

Read More

Lack of Referential Index

Lack of Referential Index is a type of language “deletion” where there is an unspecified group of people or an unknown “they” in the statement, such as “everyone knows you like to eat ice cream” or “they said you were too busy to go”.

Read More

Modal Operators

Modal Operators is when language implies a “must” when there is no requirement for one. Using Modal Operators limits options and remove choices, such as “I must win this competition”, “you must buy this jacket or you will be cold” or “You must resolve this issue.” Modal Operators imply things could happen or must happen. Common Milton […]

Read More

Universal Quantifiers

Universal Quantifiers are universal generalizations without referential index. They are statements that include an all or nothing type of generalization, such as “this always does that” or “every time I do that, then this happens”. The Milton Model uses statements with words such as ‘all, every, always, never, any, everybody, nobody, no one‘ that act to […]

Read More

Deletions

Deletions, in language, is where specific information is left out of the verbal communication. This includes vague  or generalized statements that leave out important details, such as “I had a bad day”. Deletions, or lack of details, is a very common occurrence in everyday language.

Read More

Presuppositions: Overview

Presuppositions can give a person the illusion of choice whilst all outcomes are acceptable. In some cases they can be used to presuppose or imply something without giving the illusion of choice. They are the linguistic equivalent of assumptions – an implicit assumption whose truth is taken for granted in communication. A presupposition must be […]

Read More