Cognitive learning styles

Extraversion/Introversion The extraverted types learn best by talking and interacting with others. By interacting with the physical world, extraverts can process and make sense of new information. The introverted types prefer quiet reflection and privacy. Information processing occurs for introverts as they explore ideas and concepts internally. Sensing/Intuition The second continuum reflects what a person […]

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Personality Types

Jung’s typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: people are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or “dichotomies”, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are “better” or […]

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The Original Big Five Traits

Raymond Cattell found personality traits to have a multi-level, hierarchical structure (Cattell, 1946). The first goal of these researchers was to find the most fundamental primary traits of personality. Next they factor-analyzed these numerous primary traits to see if these traits had a structure of their own—i.e. if some of them naturally went together in self-defining, meaningful […]

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16PF Global and Primary Factors

Introversion/Extraversion Low Anxiety/High Anxiety Receptivity/Tough-Mindedness Accommodation/Independence Lack of Restraint/Self-Control A: Reserved/Warm C: Emotionally Stable/Reactive A: Warm/Reserved E: Deferential/Dominant F: Serious/Lively B: Problem-Solving F: Serious/Lively L: Trusting/Vigilant I: Sensitive/Unsentimental H: Shy/Bold G: Expedient/Rule-Conscious H: Shy/Bold O: Self-Assured/Apprehensive M: Abstracted/Practical L: Trusting/Vigilant M: Abstracted/Practical N: Private/Forthright Q4: Relaxed/Tense Q1: Open-to-Change/Traditional Q1: Traditional/Open-to-Change Q3: Tolerates Disorder/Perfectionistic Q2: Self-Reliant/Group-Oriented

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Raymond Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors

Below is a table outlining the personality traits measured by the 16PF Questionnaire. Descriptors of Low Range Primary Factor Descriptors of High Range Impersonal, distant, cool, reserved, detached, formal, aloof Warmth (A) Warm, outgoing, attentive to others, kindly, easy-going, participating, likes people Concrete thinking, lower general mental capacity, less intelligent, unable to handle abstract problems […]

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16PF Questionnaire

The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric […]

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Extrovert Ideal

The “Extrovert Ideal” Susan Cain says Western, and in particular, American, culture is dominated by what she calls the “Extrovert Ideal,” described as “the omnipresent belief that the ideal self is gregarious, alpha and comfortable in the spotlight.” Western societies, being based on the Greco-Roman ideal which praises oratory, favor the man of action over the man of […]

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Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking (Book)

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking is a 2012 non-fiction book written by Susan Cain. Cain argues that modern Western culture misunderstands and undervalues the traits and capabilities of introverted people, leading to “a colossal waste of talent, energy, and happiness.” The book presents a history of how Western […]

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Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (Book)

Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type is a book written by Isabel Briggs Myers with Peter B. Myers, which describes the insights into the psychological type model originally developed by C.G. Jung as adapted and embodied in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test. The book explains the many practical applications of this typological model using four […]

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Lifestyle preferences: judging/perception

Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung’s typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion). Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world […]

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Functions: sensing/intuition and thinking/feeling

Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions: Two perceiving functions: sensation (usually called “sensing” in MBTI writings) and intuition Two judging functions: thinking and feeling According to Jung’s typology model, each person uses one of these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are used at different times […]

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Attitudes: extraversion/introversion

Myers–Briggs literature uses the terms extraversion and introversion as Jung first used them. Extraversion means “outward-turning” and introversion means “inward-turning”. These specific definitions vary somewhat from the popular usage of the words. Note that extraversion is the spelling used in MBTI publications. The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called “attitudes”. Briggs and Myers recognized […]

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Orientation of the tertiary function

Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts and interior for introverts. The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite orientation. If the dominant cognitive function is introverted the other functions are extraverted and vice versa. The MBTI Manual summarizes references in Jung’s work to […]

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Judging vs Perception

The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs ideas to Jung’s original thought is their concept that a given type’s fourth letter (J or P) indicates a person’s preferred extraverted function, which is the dominant function for extraverted types and the auxiliary function for introverted types.[

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Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Definition

The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire designed to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. It is based on the typological theory proposed by Carl Jung who had speculated that there are […]

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