Words or statements that can be interpreted in more than one way. The use of language that is vague, or ambiguous. Language that is ambiguous is also abstract (as opposed to specific). Ambiguous language is often used in therapy as a form of mild hypnosis. It can also be used in several different ways in business, […]
The need of human beings to interact with each other. One of the Meta Programs that indicates whether a person prefers to work alone or with a team.
Mismatching is the opposite of Matching. It is the process of adopting different patterns of behavior in contradiction to another person, breaking rapport for the purpose of redirecting, interrupting or terminating a meeting or conversation. Mismatching can be used at times when it’s appropriate to abruptly disrupt the rapport with another person.
Matching is when a person matches or “paces” the verbal and non-verbal language of others to build rapport with them. This can be achieved by matching the posture, breathing pattern, gestures, voice tone, speaking speed, and facial expressions. This can also be referred to as “pacing” or “mirroring”.
Mind Reading occurs when someone assumes they know what another person is thinking or feeling without direct evidence. Mind Reading can be recognized when someone claims to know something without obvious evidence, claims to know how another person feels, or claims to understand another person’s internal state without explanation. It is the assumptions that are made about […]
A method used to notate the structure of any particular experience. The concept of the four tuple maintains that any experience must be composed of some combination of the four primary representational classes – A,V,K,O – where A=Auditory, V=Visual, K=Kinesthetic, and O=Olfactory/Gustatory. x
Organizing or breaking down some experience into bigger or smaller pieces. Chunking up comprises of expanding out to a larger, more abstract level of information (the ‘big picture’). Chunking down comprises of narrowing down to a more specific and concrete level of information. Chunking laterally comprises of finding other examples at the same level of information.
The practice of reading another person’s unconscious and non-verbal responses during an ongoing interaction. This is achieved by recognizing observable behavioral cues that are linked to a specific internal response. Calibration can include such things as noticing body posture, eye movements, breathing patterns, breathing rates, skin color, voice tone and many other subtle changes in behavior.
Subtle behaviors that will help indicate what representational system a person is using to think with. As people think or process information, they have subtle changes and variations in the physical body and behavior. Common types of accessing cues include eye movements, voice tone, voice tempo, body posture, skin color, gestures, facial expressions, and breathing […]
A technique of asking a person to imagine doing something in the future and monitoring their reactions. Future pacing can be used to “embed” change into the contexts of the future. It gives a person the experience of dealing positively with a situation before they get into that situation in reality. This is based on […]
Submodalities are the fine details of representational systems. In the late 1970s the developers of NLP started playing around with the submodalities of representational systems involving the enhancement of visualization techniques (common in sports psychology and meditation), by including other sensory systems. Submodalities involve the relative size, location, brightness of internal images, the volume and […]
NLP calls each individual’s perception of the world their ‘map’. NLP teaches that our mind-body (neuro) and what we say (language) all interact together to form our perceptions of the world, or maps (programming). Each person’s map of the world determines feelings and behavior. Therefore, impoverished and unrealistic maps can restrict choices and result in […]
Modeling in NLP is the process of adopting the behaviors, language, strategies and beliefs of another person or exemplar in order to ‘build a model of what they do…we know that our modeling has been successful when we can systematically get the same behavioral outcome as the person we have modeled’. The ‘model’ is then […]
In NLP the Meta-model is a set of specifying questions or language patterns designed to challenge and expand the limits to a person’s model or ‘map’ of the world. When a person speaks about a problem or situation, their choice of words, (or ‘indicators’), will distort, generalize, and delete portions of their experience. By listening […]
The five senses: seeing, hearing, touching (feeling), smelling and tasting. The representational systems in NLP are simply the five senses. We represent the world using the visual (images), auditory (sounds), kinesthetic (touch and internal feelings), gustatory (tastes) and olfactory (smells) senses. Our thinking consists of images, sounds, feelings and usually to a lesser extent, tastes […]
The Milton model is a form of hypnotherapy based on the language patterns for hypnotic communication of Milton Erickson, a noted hypnotherapist. The Milton-Model is the inverse of the Meta Model, using artfully vague language patterns to pace another person’s experience and access unconscious resources. The Milton-Model helps with maintaining rapport and is often used in […]
A perceptual position is a point of view which includes all of our representational systems (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory, olfactory, linguistic). Our body’s somatic syntax, our beliefs, our patterns and behaviors, etc., are also parts of what we perceive, and thus can be important components of our perceptual position. Our brains are capable of representing […]
There are many meta programs, but the following are a few of the most important. Each is a binary choice – that is, attention is focused on one or the other. Meta Programs are neither good nor bad outside some specific context. They are not a form of personality typing. In general, a person benefits […]
Meta Programs are habits or “programs” of attention – what we pay attention to and what we filter out – the awareness of perception in various contexts. The conscious mind, it is said, can only attend to a maximum of 7 +/- 2 representations at once. Yet our sensory receptors are actively perceiving uncounted millions […]
NLP defines ‘intention’ in several ways according to the context. In relation to a goal, a person’s intention is the “meta outcome” of the goal – the deeper something, the “even more important” something which having the goal will bring to the person. Often, the positive intention is several meta levels deeper or larger than […]
A Well-Formed Outcome is a goal or desired outcome, with a firm intention to reach it, and having the action necessary to achieve it. NLP specifies the following six conditions for a goal, or other type of desired outcome, to be considered a “well-formed” outcome – that is, complete, fully congruent, and ecologically sound for the […]
Orientation in time is a phrase originally used by Milton Erickson, M.D. to describe the ability of people to fully associate into experiences in the past, as well as the imagined future. NLP discovered that people do not have to be in a hypnotic trance to experience orientation in time in this way. In fact, […]
In NLP association and disassociation are characteristics of perceptual position. Association is perception and experience as if one is inside the scene or experience being represented internally, whether that representation’s time location is in the past, present or future, and whether that representation is in any of the four perceptual positions. An associated state is […]
Submodalities are the specific characteristics of each of our sensory representational systems. For example: Visual submodalities: size, shape, color, focus, transparency, motion/still, angle, brightness/darkness, contrast, vertical position, horizontal position, distance, speed, peripherality, panoramic/bordered, visual texture, 2D/3D, point of view (associated, disassociated), etc. Auditory submodalities: volume, pitch, timbre/tonality, duration, distance, movement, source, direction, location, harmony, dissonance, […]
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